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Bacteria for Breakfast: Probiotics for Good Health

Contents

Acknowledgements
Introduction
1. Bacteria 101: Bacteria Within

    Normal Flora
    Where does normal flora come from?
      Role of environment
    • Role of diet.
    Normal Flora: What Keeps it "Normal"?
    • Mouth and throat
    • Stomach
    • Small intestines, pancreas and liver
    • Transition to the colon
    Function of Bacteria in the Colon
    Other Ways Good Bacteria Fight Bad Bacteria in the Colon
    Other Benefits of Gut Flora
    Common Bacteria in the Colon
    • Gram negative anaerobic rods
    • Non-spore-forming gram positive rods
    • Gram positive cocci
    • Spore-forming gram positive rods
    • Coliforms
    Conclusion
    References

2. Was it Something I Ate? When Digestive Functions Go Amiss

    Mouth
    Stomach
    • Gastric acid
    • H. pylori
    Small Intestines
    • Peristalsis
    • Pancreatic dysfunction
    • Role of IgA antibodies
    Colon
    Conclusion
    References

3. Bacterial Instant Messaging: The Gut as an Immune Organ

    Do Diet and Nutrition Play a Role in Allergies and Inflammation?
    Basic Immunological Principles
    How the Gut Gets Involved in Immunity
    • The gut immune system
    Controlled Inflammation
    Ridding the Gut of Some Microorganisms
    While Tolerating Others
    • Immune exclusion
    • Immune elimination
    • Immune regulation
    Conclusion
    References

4. The Bacterial Balancing Act: Dysbiosis and the Immune System

    Inflammation
    • What causes it?
    • Role of increased gut permeability
    Allergic Diseases
    • Healthy bacteria prevent allergies
    • Probiotics to treat allergies
    • Reasons for allergies in children
    Probiotics Modify the Immune System
    Conclusion
    References

5. A Gut Wrenching Experience: Probiotics and Diarrhea

    C. difficile Diarrhea
    About Clostridium difficile
    Standard Medical Treatments for C. difficile
    Probiotics in C. difficile Diarrhea
    • Saccharomyces boulardii
    • Probiotic bacteria
    • Less aesthetically pleasing probiotic alternatives
    Other types of Diarrhea
    • Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
    • Gastroenteritis
    • Necrotizing enterocolitis
    • Traveler's diarrhea
    • Other conditions associated with diarrhea
    Conclusion
    References

6. Quenching the Fire: Probiotics and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Theories of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    • Theory 1: Persistent bacterial infection in the gut
    • Theory 2: Subtle alterations in bacteria within the gut (dysbiosis)
    • Theory 3: Gut bacteria impair function of the intestinal mucosa, perpetuating inflammation
    • Theory 4: Abnormal immune response to normal bacterial components (lack of oral tolerance)
    Common Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    • Immunosuppressants
    Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    • How probiotics work
    • Animal data
    • Human data
    Genetically-engineered Probiotics?
    Prebiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Conclusion
    References

7. Why Does My Food Make Me Sick? Probiotics and Allergic Diseases

    Hygiene Hypothesis
    • Why does the immune system favor Th-2 allergic
    • Responses in infancy?
    Why "Healthy" Bacteria Are So Important
    • A role for bifidobacteria
    • A role for Escherichia coli
    • A role for lactobacilli
    The Role of "Leaky Guts" in Allergies
    • Lactobacilli
    • Bifidobacteria
    Inhaled Allergies, Asthma, Food Allergies, Anaphylaxis
    • Allergic rhinitis
    • Asthma
    • Dietary interventions for asthma
    • Food Allergies and Anaphylaxis
    Allergies and the Pancreas
    Conclusion
    References

8. Problems in Private Places: Probiotics and Urogenital Infections

    Urogenital Flora
    Bacterial Vaginosis
    • Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy
    Yeast Vaginitis
    Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
    Other
    Conclusion
    References

9. So Many Choices, So Little Advice: Selecting a Probiotic

    Discuss the Use of Probiotics with Your Health Care Provider
    Questions to Ask
    What you Can Do to Maximize Probiotic Activity
    Dosing Issues
    Conclusion
    References

10. It's Not A Typo. What Are Prebiotics?

    What is a Prebiotic?
    Criteria for a Prebiotic
    • Indigestible
    • Fermentation
    Unwanted Side Effects
    Clinical Trials
    • Hepatic encephalopathy
    • Mineral absorption
    • Cardiovascular effects
    • Cancer
    • Other
    Synbiotics
    Conclusion
    References

11. What Next? Future Directions for Probiotics

    Cancer Prevention
    • Colon cancer
    • Cervical cancer
    • Other tumors and cancers: lung, bladder, leukemia
    Enzyme Deficiencies
    • Lactose intolerance
    • Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency
    Gastrointestinal Disorders
    • Short bowel syndrome
    • Irritable bowel syndrome
    • Constipation
    • Diverticulitis
    • Small bowel overgrowth
    • Peptic ulcer disease
    Cardiovascular disease
    • Reduce risk of blood clotting and lower high cholesterol
    • High blood pressure
    Dental Caries (Cavities)
    Chronic Kidney Failure
    Hepatic Encephalopathy
    Autism
    Immune Enhancement
    • Immunizations
    • Respiratory tract infection prevention
    • Ecoimmunonutrition
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Serious Staph infection prevention
    Future Directions
    References

Summary

Appendix

Glossary